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Basic Vocabulary of Taekwondo

taekwondo kick

BASIC VOCABULARY OF TAEKWONDO

basic vocabulary taekwondo

Other vocabularies:
Technical Vocabulary of ITF-Style Taekwondo
Technical Vocabulary of WTF-Style Taekwondo

DEFINITION

foot – tae
fist – kwon
way/ path/ discipline/ art – do

The term “Taekwondo” signifies “the way/path/discipline/art of the foot and the fist”. Different styles of Taekwondo may define it differently with slight variations. For example, “the art of kicking and punching”, or “the path of physical and mental training”, or “the discipline of self defense”, or “the way of the striking feet and fists”, and more.

To know how the term “Taekwondo” was coined, please see “A brief history of Taekwondo” and “Kwans, Organisations and Styles of Taekwondo“.

TITLES

founder of the martial art/ style – dojoonim
school master/ grandmaster – kwanjangnim
chief/ master instructor – chungsanim
master/ instructor – sabumnim/ sahboonim
teacher/ instructor – gyosanim/ kyosahnim
senior student – sunbaenim
junior student – hubaenim
student – haksaeng
trainee – suryunsaeng
pupil – jeja
referee – joosim
judge – busim
juror – baesim
time keeper – kaesim
recorder – kirohk

COMMON TERMS

school – kwan
studio/ gym/ training hall – dojang
uniform – dobok
training pants – hai
belt – dhee
black belt level/ degree – dan
colour belt level/ grade – gup
rank – kagup
system of rank – dan gup jedo
grading/promotional examination – simsa
examiner – simsa kwan

COMMON PHRASES

yes – ye/ ne
no – anio
thank you – kahm sa hamnida/ komap sumnida
don’t mention it/ you’re welcome – cheon maeneyo
congratulations – cheuk ka hamnida
“are you well?/ how are you?” – ahnyong hasimnika/ ahnyong hasayo
hello (on phone) or to get attention/ please look here – yoboseyo
I’m sorry – choesong hamnida/ mian hamnida
excuse me (asking forgiveness) – shillye hamnida
that’s all right – kwaen chanayo
goodbye (to the person who is leaving)/ go in peace – ahnyonghee gasipsiyo/ ahnyonghee gasayo
goodbye (to the person who is staying)/ stay in peace – ahnyonghee gyesipsiyo/ ahnyonghee gyesayo
It’s fun/ interesting – chaemi isseoyo
I understand – ahlge seoyo
I don’t understand – moreuge seoyo
pleased to meet you – pangap seumnida
see you later – toh poepkeseoyo
welcome – eoseo osayo

NUMBERS

Two different numbering systems are used in Taekwondo.

The first system is used for general counting. The first ten numbers in the first numbering system are:
1 – hana
2 – dool
3 – set
4 – net
5 – dasut
6 – yasut
7 – ilgup
8 – yodul
9 – ahop
10 – yol

The second system is used to describe a Taekwondo practitioner’s rank, e.g. “il dan” would mean “first degree black belt”. The first ten numbers in the second numbering system are:
1 – il
2 – ee
3 – sahm
4 – sah
5 – oh
6 – ryook
7 – chil
8 – pal
9 – koo
10 – sip

DIRECTIONS

front – ap/ ahp
rear – dwi
left – wen/ joa
right – oreun/ oo
up – olyeo
down – naeryeo
in – an/ ahn
out – bakkat/ bahkat
inward – ahnuro
outward – bahkuro
top section – ulgool
middle section – momtong
bottom section – ahrae

BODY PARTS

brain – noe
body – mom
upper section of the body – olyeo/ olgul
middle section of the body – momtong
lower section of the body – arae
side of the body – yeopguri
back of the body – deung
backbone – cheokchu
bone – ppyeo
skin – pibu/ salgat
wrinkle – jureum
blood – hyeoraek
muscle – geunyuk
head – meori
hair – meorikarak
face – eolgul
forehead – ima
eyebrow – nunsseop
eyelid – nunkkeopul
eyelash – songnunsseop
eye – nun
cheek – bol
ear – gwi
nose – ko
nostril – kogumeong
mouth – ip
lip – ipssul
tooth – i
gum – inmom
tongue – hyeo
taste bud – miroe
facial hair – suyeom
beard – teokssuyeom
moustache – kotssuyeom
chin – teok
neck – mok
nape of the neck – mokdeolmi
throat – mokgumeong
shoulder – eokkae
collarbone – swaegol
armpit – gyeodeurangi
arm – pal
elbow – palkkumchi
wrist/forearm – palmok/ sonmok
inner wrist/forearm – anpalmok
outer wrist/forearm – bakkatpalmok
hand – son
back of the hand – sondeung
palm – sonbadak
lower palm/palm heel – batangson
fist – jumeok/ kwon
finger – songgarak
thumb – eomji
index finger – geomji
ring finger – yakji
fingernail – sontop
fingertips – sonkkeut
chest – gaseum
solar plexus – myongchi
abdomen – bae
navel – baekkop
buttocks – eongdeongi
leg – dari
thigh – heobeokji
knee – mureup
shin – jeonggangi
calf – jongali
ankle – balmok
instep – baldeung
foot – bal
ball of the foot – apchuk
back of the heel – dwikkumchi
toenail – baltop

INTERNAL BODY ORGANS

heart – simjang
liver – gan
lungs – pye
stomach – wi
appendix – maengjang
kidney – kongpat
pancreas – chwejang
gall – damnang
bowels – jang
womb – jagung
anus – hangmun

PRIMARY ELEMENTS

patterns – poomsae
sparring – gyeorugi
breaking boards/ bricks/ tiles – gyeokpa
self-defence – hoshinsul

TECHNIQUES

kicking – chagi
striking – chigi
stepping – ditgi
grabbing – japgi
punching – jireugi
thrusting – jjireugi
chopping – jjikgi
ready posture – junbi-jase
locking – kkeokgi
blocking – makgi
pushing – milgi
throwing down or tripping up – neomgigi
evading or dodging – pihagi
pulling out – ppaegi
stance – seogi
special forms – teuksupum
jumping – ttwigi

PROTECTIVE GEAR

chest protector – hogoo/ bohogoo
protective gloves – sahn boho jang kap
forearm guard – pahlmahk bohodae
shin guard – jung kang yi bohodae
protective groin cup – nang shim bohodae
protective head gear – muh ree bohodae
mouth guard – eep bohodae

COMMANDS

bow – kyongye/ kyung nae
attention – charyot
ready – choon bi
start/begin – sijak/ seijak
stop/end – gomahn/ mum cho
break/stop – kalyeo
continue – kae sok
stand – elosoh
sit – ahnjoe
kneel – kool o angi
turn – dorah
relax – shiuh
in your own time – koryiapse/ koo ryung op see
to your place – paru
return to starting position – bahro
face the flag – geuk gi hyang ha yoh
face each other – jwa woo hyang woo
face the instructor/master – sah bum nim keh
face senior student – sun bae nim keh
face examiner – simsa kwan nim keh
fix your uniform – dobok dahnjung
fix your belt – dhee dahnjung
class dismissed – hai sahn/ hae cho
line up – jonglee/ ji hap/ jung yul
sit in yoga lotus posture – bah ro angi
switch your stance/feet – bahl bah kwah
yell/shout – kihap

REFERENCES

A Summary of Korean Terminology for TaeKwonDo (2021) Martial Arts Resource. Available at: http://www.martialartsresource.com/korean/TKD.list.htm [Accessed on 10 Sep 2021]

Body Parts (2021). Life in Korea. Available at: http://www.lifeinkorea.com/language/korean.cfm?Subject=body [Accessed on 9 Sep 2021]

General Tae Kwon-Do and Korean Terminology (2021). White Tiger Taekwondo. Available at: https://www.whitetigertaekwon-do.co.uk/general-tae-kwon-do-and-korean-terminology/ [Accessed on 10 Sep 2021]

Korean Vocabulary Lists: Your Face (2021). KoreanClass101.com Available at: https://www.koreanclass101.com/korean-vocabulary-lists/your-face [Accessed on 9 Sep 2021]

TaeKwonDo Terminology: Essential Words To Know (2021). Tae Kwon Do Nation. Available at: https://www.taekwondonation.com/tae-kwon-do-terminology/ [Accessed on 10 Sep 2021]

Taekwondo Vocabulary (2021). Taekwondo Fandom. Available at: https://taekwondo.fandom.com/wiki/Taekwondo_Vocabulary [Accessed on 10 Sep 2021]

TDK_Terms (2021). Shiba Taekwondo. Available at: https://www.shibataekwondo.net/TKD_Terms.pdf [Accessed on 9 Sep 2021]

Truejim (2018). Taekwondo Vocabulary.png Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taekwondo_Vocabulary.png [Accessed on 9 Sep 2021]

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